Comparing the effects of water temperature and additives in glucose solution on pregnant women's taste, side effects, and glycaemia levels during an oral glucose tolerance test: A randomized controlled trial

Published:January 19, 2023DOI:


      • Cold soda water resulted in significantly higher glycaemia level at 1 h after glucose intake compared with the same soda water at room temperature.
      • Cold glucose solution received favorable taste scores from pregnant women and reduced their nausea.
      • Addition of a tea bag to cold glucose solution resulted in slightly better taste and less nausea without affecting GDM incidence.



      To assess the effect of liquid temperature and additives on pregnant women's taste perception, side effects, and glycaemia levels in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

      Study design

      This study was a single-center, randomized, and multi- and open-arm clinical trial. A total of 399 participants receiving the 75-g OGTT for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis were included. Solutions for use in the 75-g OGTT were prepared to eight formulas, with the participants randomly assigned into one of eight groups: room-temperature water, hot water, cold water, hot water with tea bag, room-temperature water with tea bag, cold water with tea bag, room-temperature soda water, and cold soda water.

      Main outcome measures

      The main study outcomes were glycaemia levels, satisfaction, perceived taste, side effects, and GDM. Glycaemia levels were measured when fasted and at 1 and 2 h after glucose administration. Satisfaction, taste perception, and side effects were evaluated immediately after the OGTT, and GDM was determined on the basis of glycaemia levels.


      The cold soda water solution led to a significantly higher glycaemia level at 1 h after glucose intake compared with room-temperature soda water solution (p = 0.009). Glucose formula was found to not significantly affect GDM incidence (p > 0.05) or the participants’ satisfaction, vomiting, headache, or abdominal bloating (p > 0.05); the formula did however significantly affect perceived taste (p = 0.027) and the degree of nausea (p = 0.014).


      Several glucose solutions, such as cold glucose solution and any-temperature glucose solution containing a tea bag, led to slightly better taste scores and a lower degree of nausea compared with the room-temperature water-based glucose solution. However, soda water was discovered to affect the glycaemia level at 1 h after glucose intake and is not suggested for use for GDM diagnosis.



      GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus), OGTT (oral glucose-tolerance test), IRB (institutional review board)
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