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Reproductive outcomes of natural pregnancy after hysteroscopic septum resection in patients with a septate uterus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Published:October 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100762

      OBJECTIVE

      The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the reproductive outcomes of natural pregnancy after hysteroscopic septum resection in patients with recurrent miscarriage, primary infertility, or secondary infertility.

      DATA SOURCES

      The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, VIP Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) databases were electronically searched. The search time frame was from inception up to July 2021. The English search terms were (arcuate* and uter*), (sept* and uter*), (subseptate* and uter*), metroplast*, septoplast*, and resect*.

      STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA

      Selection criteria included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case series that explored reproductive outcomes after hysteroscopic septum resection in patients with recurrent miscarriage, primary infertility, or secondary infertility with or without a control group.

      METHODS

      The primary outcomes were the live birth rate and eventual postoperative live birth rate after hysteroscopic septum resection. The secondary outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, and miscarriage rate. Study-level proportions of outcomes were transformed using the Freeman–Tukey double-arcsine transformation to calculate pooled values for the postoperative rates; the counted data were analyzed using relative risk as the effect analysis statistic, and each effect size was provided with its 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity between the results of the included studies was analyzed using the I2 test.

      RESULTS

      Overall, 5 cohort studies and 22 case series involving 1506 patients were included. In patients with a septate uterus and recurrent miscarriage, hysteroscopic septum resection was associated with an increased live birth rate (relative risk, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–2.49; P=.001; I2=0%), resulting in a postoperative live birth rate of 66% (95% confidence interval, 59–72), and septum resection was associated with a reduced preterm birth rate (relative risk, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.04–0.53; P=.003; I2=0%) and miscarriage rate (relative risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.20–0.66; P=.0009; I2=0%). In patients with a septate uterus and primary infertility, hysteroscopic septum resection was associated with an increased live birth rate (relative risk, 4.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–14.29; P=.03; I2=0%) and clinical pregnancy rate (relative risk, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–4.98; P=.04; I2=0%). The postoperative live birth rate was 37% (95% confidence interval, 30–44), and the miscarriage rate of patients with primary infertility was reduced (relative risk, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.56; P=.003). The efficacy of hysteroscopic septum resection in patients with secondary infertility was unclear. However, their postoperative live birth rate was found to be 41% (95% confidence interval, 2–88).

      CONCLUSION

      Hysteroscopic septum resection is associated with an increased live birth rate and a reduced miscarriage rate in patients with recurrent miscarriage or primary infertility, indicating that septum resection may improve the reproductive outcomes of these patients. The effectiveness of septum resection was unclear for patients with secondary infertility. These findings are limited by the quality of the included studies, warranting further randomized controlled trials, including only patients with recurrent miscarriage or primary infertility.

      Key words

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