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Association of perinatal outcomes among pregnant patients with gestational diabetes receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

Published:September 14, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100750

      BACKGROUND

      Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus has been demonstrated to improve perinatal outcomes. However, the role of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in maternal and neonatal outcomes for qualifying patients with gestational diabetes mellitus is less understood.

      OBJECTIVE

      The objective of this study is to observe the relationship of enrollment in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children with pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes.

      STUDY DESIGN

      This was a retrospective cohort study using National Vital Statistics Birth Data of pregnant persons diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus between 2014 and 2018. The study population was composed of patients who had Medicaid coverage for maternity care; patients with Medicaid are automatically qualified for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. The study groups were defined as those who enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children vs those who did not enroll. In addition, maternal and neonatal outcomes for these groups were analyzed. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for significant covariates were performed.

      RESULTS

      Of 460,377 pregnant persons with pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, 73% were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and 27% were not. Pregnant persons with gestational diabetes mellitus enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children had decreased odds of preterm delivery before 34 and 37 weeks of gestation. Although the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children group had higher odds of large-for-gestational-age neonates and cesarean delivery, the overall rates of these outcomes in both cohorts were high.

      CONCLUSION

      The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children provides a resource for perinatal support, supplemental food, and nutritional education. The decrease in the rates of preterm deliveries in pregnant persons with gestational diabetes mellitus that enroll in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, Infants, and Children relative to those that qualified for the program but did not enroll suggested that having access to available education and food sources may influence perinatal outcomes.

      Key words

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